What is Downstream Processing (DSP)?

Downstream processing is the part of a bioprocess where the cell mass from the upstream is processed to meet purity and quality requirements. The isolation and purification of a biotechnological product to a form suitable for its intended use, is termed DSP. Typically, this means recovery of a product from an aqueous solution. The products of biotechnology include whole cells, organic acids, amino acids, solvents, antibiotics, industrial enzymes, therapeutic proteins, vaccines etc. As these products vary greatly in size and nature, different separation principles are required for their recovery and purification.

Downstream processing is usually divided into the following stages, including buffer preparation:

Cell Harvest

Buffer Preparation




Final Fill


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